Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a collection of disorders characterized by structural abnormalities in the heart at birth. These irregularities might vary from minor disorders that do not generate noticeable symptoms to severe diseases that necessitate emergency medical attention. Here are some examples of frequent congenital cardiac diseases:

VSD (Ventricular Septal Defect):

This is one of the most frequent kinds of congenital heart disease. It consists of a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). Blood can flow from the left ventricle to the right ventricle, putting stress on the heart.

ASD (Atrioventricular Septal Defect):

This is a gap in the wall that separates the upper chambers of the heart (atria). It permits blood to circulate between the atria, potentially increasing blood volume in the right atrium and right ventricle.

TOF (Tetralogy of Fallot):

A ventricular septal defect, an overriding aorta, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and right ventricular hypertrophy (thickening of the right ventricle wall) are all part of this complicated cardiac abnormality.

Aortic arch coarctation:

This illness is characterized by a constriction of the aorta, the primary artery that transports oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body. It might result in decreased blood flow to the lower body.

Great Arteries Transposition:

The pulmonary artery and aorta locations are flipped in this situation. Oxygen-depleted blood is pumped into the body, while oxygen-rich blood is returned to the lungs, resulting in a shortage of oxygen in the body.

HLHS (Hypotplastic Left Heart Syndrome):

The left side of the heart is underdeveloped in this severe abnormality. It need prompt medical attention, which generally entails numerous procedures.

The Ebstein Anomaly:

The tricuspid valve is improperly positioned and not working correctly in this situation. It can cause blood to flow back into the right atrium.

PDA (Patent Ductus Arteriosus):

Normally, the ductus arteriosus, a tiny blood artery, shuts shortly after birth. This channel stays open in PDA, enabling oxygen-rich blood to mingle with oxygen-depleted blood.

Atresia of the lungs:

This is a disorder in which the pulmonary valve does not correctly develop, resulting in an obstruction of blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs.

DORV (Double Outlet Right Ventricle):

The pulmonary artery and aorta are both attached to the right ventricle in this abnormality, but the left ventricle is not.

These are only a few instances of congenital cardiac illnesses; there are a plethora of other variants and combinations of anatomical defects that can damage the heart. Treatment options differ based on the degree and kind of problem. Early detection and intervention are critical for properly treating congenital heart disease.

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