Industrial hygiene is the science and practice of finding, analyzing, and controlling workplace risks in order to protect employees’ health and safety.

Industrial hygiene focuses on a variety of dangers, which may be classified into numerous categories. Industrial hygiene defines four major categories of hazards:

Physical Hazards:


Excessive noise can cause hearing loss and other health problems.


Prolonged vibration exposure can lead to a variety of health issues, including musculoskeletal ailments.


Ionizing radiation (e.g., X-rays) and non-ionizing radiation (e.g., UV rays, microwaves) can both be harmful to workers’ health.

Extreme Temperatures:

Both heat and cold stress can have an impact on employees’ health and safety.

Ergonomic Risks:

Poor workplace design and equipment might result in musculoskeletal problems as a result of incorrect posture or repeated activities.

Chemical Hazards:

Chemical Substances:

Toxic gases, solvents, heavy metals, and insecticides are examples of hazardous substances.

Chemical Reactions:

The possibility of chemical reactions that release toxic compounds or generate hazardous situations.

Biological Hazards:

Biological hazards include exposure to bacteria, viruses, fungus, and other microbes that might cause sickness.

Biological Hazards:

Infectious Agents:

Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are examples of biological agents that may cause infections.


Allergens are substances that might cause allergies or respiratory problems in those who are allergic to them.

Psychosocial Hazards:


High levels of stress caused by work pressures or other circumstances can have an influence on mental and physical health.

Workload and Weariness:

Excessive workload and weariness can result in decreased focus and an increased risk of accidents.

Workplace Violence:

Threats, harassment, or physical violence in the workplace by employees or third parties.

Ergonomic Hazards:

Ergonomic hazards include workplaces, equipment, and jobs that are poorly designed and cause physical discomfort and stress.

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